COMM12022 Blog #4

Revolution of Print


Today, we can have almost anything we need in printed form for anyone to read. Once upon a time though, there was no such thing. In the early 1400s a technique of ‘printing’ came about when locals would lay a piece of paper on a carved ink block and then rub its back to transfer the ink (Gascoigne, 2001).


From there, in the middle of the 15th century, Gutenberg is associated with being the first to produce a ‘press and supply’ of metal, a print.


“Gutenberg’s great achievement in the story of printing has several components. One is his development of the printing press, capable of applying a rapid but steady downward pressure. More significant are Gutenberg’s skills with metal (his original trade is that of a goldsmith). These enable him to master the complex stages in the manufacture of individual pieces of type, which involve creating a master copy of each letter, devising the moulds in which multiple versions can be cast, and developing a suitable alloy (type metal) in which to cast them” (Gascoigne, 2001).


From the development of Gutenberg’s printer, came books and texts. The first, most like to the books we know, was Aldus Manutius is the first printer to come up with smaller, more portable books. He is also the first to use Italic type.


Originally, books were for those from money as they were expensive and hard to come by. But as time drew on, and the printing process became easier and more accessible, books became relied upon assets, for entertainment, education and many other uses. 


There is worry for the world of print though, with Agarwal saying “Online education for students around the world will be the next big thing in education. This is the single biggest change in education since the printing press “ (Argwal, 2012). If textbooks are not needed for students who utilise ‘textbooks’ online, there will be a steep decline in the need for printing houses and publishing houses.



Gascoigne, Bamber. “History of Printing” HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing. [Accessed 12 May 2016].

Moodie, G 2014, ‘Gutenberg’s effects on universities’, History Of Education, 43, 4, pp. 450-467, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 May 2016. (2016). The history of printing | The evolution of print from Gutenberg to now. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2016].

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COMM12022 Blog: #3

The Rise of the Internet


The rise of the internet in the last 30 years has opened the world to opportunities never seen before. Not only that, it has created a whole new generation of businesses and entrepreneurs. Not all good can be said of the rapid growth of the use of the internet around the world. There is a new world at the ends of our fingers tips.


People use the internet for many things in their everyday lives. One such aspect of the online world is online dating. You can find your future partner or companion at the touch of a button from your computer, your phone or almost any other device. “The Internet increasingly allows Americans to meet and form relationships with perfect strangers, that is, people with whom they had no previous social tie. Individuals who face a thin market for potential partners, such as gays, lesbians, and middle-aged heterosexuals, are especially likely to meet partners online” (Rosenfeld, 2012).

Not only has the internet impacted the love life of millions around the world it has changed the way we learn. “Although personal computers were common in the mid-1990s, their primary purpose was word processing, sending and receiving e-mails, chatting online, playing games, and using dial-up connections to surf the Internet…” (Jacobs, 2012).  Since the early 1990s times have changed and the internet is used in almost all classrooms around the world.

“The National Centre for Educational Statistics (2003) in the United States found that 23 per cent of children in preschool (aged three to five years) have started to use the internet and that there is increased use in the kindergarten years (age six). The trend of using the internet has greatly increased in the past few years (Pei-Wan, 2015). The internet is a phenomenon that is helping to aid the learning process from a very young age, showing great benefits. “Based on cognitive constructivist theories that emphasise that learning is the result of a child’s maturation and his or her interactions with the environment, the internet provides an environment for children to assimilate and accommodate their prior knowledge and new information” (Pei-Wan, 2015).


Not only have our world’s classrooms exploded with the use of the internet, but so have businesses all around the world. Now, a business can be considered a person posting about their life on social media and being paid for it. The rise of social media business has turned ordinary people into overnight entrepreneurs.


Norton says “Medium, Twitter, Instagram and now Snapchat—people are people and are going to hang out wherever they choose to hangout…. It used to be that if you had a message, you tried to bring the people to you. That’s incredible if you can do it. But far more likely, you’ll need to go to them, where they are. When you do, you can invite and bring them back to you. And this is where the magic begins” (Norton, 2016). This simple quote shows how easy it is for people to find you, rather than you having to go out and find them. Social media is at your fingertips constantly and therefore the reach of the businesses is always at the touch of a button.

JACOBS, GE 2012, ‘The Proverbial Rock and Hard Place: The Realities and Risks of Teaching in a World of Multi literacies, Participatory Culture, and Mandates’, Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56, 2, pp. 98-102, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 May 2016

Pei-Wen, T, Lai Poh Emily, T, & Jyh-Chong, L 2015, ‘Early childhood teachers’ views towards using constructivist internet-based environments to support children’s learning activities: A mixed-methods study’, Australasian Journal Of Early Childhood, 40, 1, pp. 81-90, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 May 2016.

Rosenfeld, M, & Thomas, R 2012, ‘Searching for a Mate: The Rise of the Internet as a Social Intermediary’, American Sociological Review, 77, 4, pp. 523-547, Health Business Elite, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 May 2016.

Connon, C 2016, “This Entrepreneur Built His Business Through Social Media (You Can Too)” (2016). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2016].

Photo References


COMM11110 Blog: #5

The Public Relations Campaign: Planning


An effective PR campaign can be the difference between a great outcome for you client and a not so good outcome for your client. Planning the PR campaign would have to be the most critical step in the campaign process to ensure that it is appropriate in the circumstances and achievable given your organisation’s requirements and goals.


The structure and layout of the planning stage is set out like a report but can vary in content from one PR practitioner to the other. Every PR plan however contains a situation analysis, an overall goal for the campaign, a list of objectives to achieve the goal, target publics, strategies and tactics to achieve the objectives, some time frame, budget, and a means of evaluation.

An imperative part of the PR campaign is setting goals and objectives. The step of the plan lets team members know what is expected of them; lets your client know what is set out to be done; and finally it creates measurable results (Harrison, 2012). Harrison says “A set of goals is achieved only by achieving a subset of interrelated objectives, even if those objectives are not clearly stated or articulated. Therefore, an objective is a strategic step along the way to achieving a desired goal” (Harrison, 2012).

When implementing a plan it is important to have enough time allocated to get the plan to a point of perfect execution. Meranus says “When planning your PR activities for the year, as a general rule, consider the full year ahead, plan for six months, and expect to revise after three months” (Meranus, 2016).


Campaigns are a significant part of the public relations profession and should be carried out with meticulous planning and thorough management.

Developing a PR Plan. 2016. Developing a PR Plan. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2016].


COMM11110 Blog: #4

Public Relations Issues: Persuasion


Coercion and persuasion may be associated with being similar actions, they are however very different. Persuasion is used to lead someone in the direction of what you believe, where as coercion is leading that person in the direction by way of threat. Persuasion is integral to communication and public relations for, “one cannot inform without the message receiver at least implicitly being persuaded that the topic is worthy of attention,” (Messina, 2007, p 30). In the public relations world, persuasion is often associated with propaganda, and therefore a topic avoided by PR professionals (Messina, 2007).


I think there is a certain way that persuasion can be use in public relations that would not be seen as questionable, however I don’t believe such a strategy is beyond the bounds of professional PR. I think there are many out there who would risk it all to get their name out in the stratosphere. After researching, I have found, what I would consider an ethical approach to persuasion in public relations, call the TARES test.


The TARES test includes:

a) Truthfulness of the message
b) Authenticity of the persuader
c) Respect for the audience
d) Equity of the persuasive appeal


I think an example of an ethical use of persuasion in PR would be to find out what the other person/public thinks about the situation. Explain to them your viewpoint, and then come to a conclusion that satisfies the both of you. For a particular PR campaign you need to garner the attention of world class celebrities. Your client believes this is a big stretch and thinks that the safest way to approach them is through social media. You are thinking of bigger and better ways to get their attention – like sending a package straight to their own publicist or team. Your client is worried this could cause some kind of unwanted commotion. You talk it over with your client and decide that the best course of action is to reach out to the celebrity on social media by letting them know that you’ve sent them a nice gift and would love their feedback. This way you are softly communicating with the celebrity in the hopes they will ‘shout out’ your client’s product. You have asked your client their viewpoint, told them yours, and have come to a happy median all through the ways of persuasion.


Messina, A. (2007). Public relations, the public interest and persuasion: An ethical approach. Journal of Communication Management, 11, 29-52. Doi: 10.1108/13632540710725978

Baker, S., Martinson, D. L. (2001). The TARES test: Five principles for ethical persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16,

COMM11110 Blog: #3

The Public Relations Campaign: Implementation Pt. 2


aaaKey messages of a public relations campaign are designed to ensure the target audiences hear, remember and understand the most important aspect of the organisation. Non-profit organisation and charity WIRES seeks to help injured and sick wildlife and return them to health as well as preserving the Australian wildlife with the help and inspiration of others ( WIRES has significantly grown in size and expertise since 1985, including the release of a Smartphone app educating people on wildlife rescue.

My Key Message

WIRES rescue organisation is a cornerstone foundation in the pursuit to preservation and safety of animals, but in particular Australian native animals.


The specific aspect of wildlife conservation that would be promoted by this campaign is the current law reform being proposed in NSW to scrap the nature laws. The notion to scrap the Nature Laws in NSW would mean that no bushland is protected, putting thousands of animals’ lives at risk. According to WWF Australia 59% of mammals, 34% of amphibians, 30% of birds, 18% of reptiles and 14% of plants indigenous to NSW are threatened with extinction  (


The target public for this campaign would be the NSW Government, local council members, members of the WWF, RSPCA, veterinarians, and the general local public of NSW to educate them on the risk that faces the native wildlife if these laws were to be scrapped.



The Future of NSW Wildlife is Under Threat . 2016. The Future of NSW Wildlife is Under Threat . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2016].

Key features of a PR campaign. 2016. Key features of a PR campaign. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2016]

Protect NSW Nature Laws | wwf. 2016. Protect NSW Nature Laws | wwf. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2016].

About WIRES Wildlife Organisation. 2016. About WIRES Wildlife Organisation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2016].

COMM12022 Blog: #2

Writing Before Writing


‘‘God made the integers; all else is the work of man,’’ (Allen, 2014). It can be said that the creation and development of numbers came from practical needs of those some 20,000 years ago when the number ‘1’ was found as a counting symbol on a bone (Allen, 2014).

When looking back at how numbers came to be, we sway toward the historical origins and contemporary uses. The most important number is ‘1’, it is a complicated story as it has more than five forms. The first and oldest dating back in history is ordinal and cardinal.  An ordinal is the descriptive word for a number of its place in order (i.e. first, second, third). A cardinal number is a number that describes how much or many of something there are (i.e. one, two, three etc).

The development of numbers lead to counting and mathematics which came to be when people converged and cities were formed. People would use numbers to keep track of livestock, crops and artisan goods located in the same place, as it was used up, added to or traded (Law, 2012). The notion of counting was introduced through the method of tokens. If a person had 4 chickens, they had 4 tokens. If one chicken died, the person would have one token removed, from this way of thinking, arithmetic was invented.

Numbers helped form the way society works. If it wasn’t for early mathematicians such as Pythagoras and Archimedes, such math equations would not exist, eliminating many of the modern uses for math such as architecture, engineering, science, geography all to be desired. Poe says “they also represented a revolution in communications. For the first time it was recognized that any symbol could be made to stand for any thing or any idea” (Poe, 2014). This forged the way for written communication as we knew it. “you could simply make up never symbols and assign them meanings by associating them with ideas or things. Any idea or thing could be ‘written’ using this technique” (Poe, 2014).

Allen, G 2014, ‘The Remarkable Number ‘1”, Science & Education, 23, 9, pp. 1845-1852, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 15 April 2016.

A brief history of numbers and counting, Part 1: Mathematics advanced with civilization | Deseret News. 2016. A brief history of numbers and counting, Part 1: Mathematics advanced with civilization | Deseret News. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 April 2016].

Poe, MT 2010, A History Of Communications. [Electronic Resource] : Media And Society From The Evolution Of Speech To The Internet, n.p.: Leiden : Cambridge University Press, 2010., CQUniversity Library Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 April 2016


COMM11110: Blog Post #2

Where does a campaign begin?

The Red Republic  –  @RedRepublicteam

the red rep

The use of social media has exploded in the last 10 years. People can generate successful businesses from just posting pictures of their daily activities. The use of #hashtags and @symbol helps users to monitor social trends as well as giving companies the ability to hone into the insights and opinions of consumers and other publics. Powell says “The # symbol has become ubiquitous to young people as a hashtag rather than a pound or number sign. Although hashtags have only been clickable since 2009, in the world of social media that’s a long time – and a hashtag in social media is now like water to a fish” (Powell, 2015). Hashtags are how we categorize and organise on social media, they are searchable and in terms of twitter have the ability to be ‘trending’ if a certain number of people are repeating that #hashtag.

The use of the @symbol is unique in that every time this symbol is used for example @RedRepublicteam, it can be found simply by selecting it. There is no need to have to search far and wide for the mention of the great work the team did as it will simply show up on the social page.  Zimmer supports this, as well as demonstrating how the use of #hashtags work in social media, “a hashtag is similar to a keyword and can be created by any user to make it easy to find all posts (“tweets”) mentioning that hashtag. For example, a user could use the hashtag #newyearsday on all her posts that are about New Year’s Day. Then, anyone wishing to find all posts about New Year’s Day, regardless of who posted them, could simply search for the #newyearsday hashtag to find out what other users had been posting on that topic” (Zimmer, 2015).


Two examples of tweets from @RedRepublicteam which I think represent public relations are below. The Red Republic is a fashion and beauty, travel, hospitality and travel PR Company. The first one is “Do you dress for success…” I believe this is considered PR as it shows a mutual understanding of what its followers are looking for; they are stylish people who want to understand how the way the dress can impact their lives.


The second one is the @Mashable tweet. This is public relations as they are use the @symbol to get in touch with everyone looking at that tag, as well as targeting their readers who may be Instagram businesses or those with an interest in all things social media.


Zimmer, s 2015, ‘Social Media and Business’, Research Starters: Business (Online Edition), 2015

Powell, F 2015, ‘#hashtags rule on social media’, New Zealand Management, vol. 64, no. 5, p. 39.